From the opposite angle, Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and a paradigm founder of ecological economics , has argued that Malthus was too optimistic, as he failed to recognize any upper limit to the growth of population — only, the geometric increase in human numbers is occasionally slowed down checked by the arithmetic increase in agricultural produce, according to Malthus' simple growth model; but some upper limit to population is bound to exist, as the total amount of agricultural land — actual as well as potential — on Earth is finite, Georgescu-Roegen points out.
Georgescu-Roegen cautions that this situation is a major reason why the carrying capacity of Earth — that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels — is bound to decrease sometime in the future as Earth's finite stock of mineral resources is presently being extracted and put to use. Anthropologist Eric Ross depicts Malthus's work as a rationalization of the social inequities produced by the Industrial Revolution , anti-immigration movements, the eugenics movement [ clarification needed ] and the various international development movements.
Despite use of the term "Malthusian catastrophe" by detractors such as economist Julian Simon — , Malthus himself did not write that mankind faced an inevitable future catastrophe. Rather, he offered an evolutionary social theory of population dynamics as it had acted steadily throughout all previous history. Malthusian social theory influenced Herbert Spencer 's idea of the survival of the fittest ,  and the modern ecological-evolutionary social theory of Gerhard Lenski and Marvin Harris. Huxley openly criticised communist and Roman Catholic attitudes to birth control , population control and overpopulation.
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace each read and acknowledged the role played by Malthus in the development of their own ideas. Darwin referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher",  and said of his On the Origin of Species : "This is the doctrine of Malthus, applied with manifold force to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, for in this case there can be no artificial increase of food, and no prudential restraint from marriage". In October I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population The result of this would be the formation of new species.
It was the first great work I had yet read treating of any of the problems of philosophical biology, and its main principles remained with me as a permanent possession, and twenty years later gave me the long-sought clue to the effective agent in the evolution of organic species. Ronald Fisher commented sceptically on Malthusianism as a basis for a theory of natural selection.
John Maynard Smith doubted that famine functioned as the great leveller, as portrayed by Malthus, but he also accepted the basic premises:. Writers who have presented ideas that have paralleled various of those of Malthus include: Paul R. Ehrlich who has written several books predicting famine as a result of population increase: The Population Bomb ; Population, resources, environment: issues in human ecology , with Anne Ehrlich ; The end of affluence , with Anne Ehrlich ; The population explosion , with Anne Ehrlich.
In the late s Ehrlich predicted that hundreds of millions would die from a coming overpopulation-crisis in the s. Other examples of work that has been accused of "Malthusianism" include the book The Limits to Growth published by the Club of Rome and the Global report to the then President of the United States Jimmy Carter. Isaac Asimov also produced many essays on topics related to overpopulation. Ecological economist Herman Daly has recognized the influence of Malthus on his own work on steady-state economics.
Other scholars have more recently [update] linked population and economics to a third variable, political change and political violence, and to show how the variables interact. In the early s, Jack Goldstone linked population variables to the English Revolution of — [ citation needed ] and David Lempert devised a model of demographics, economics, and political change in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius.
Goldstone has since modeled other revolutions by looking at demographics and economics [ citation needed ] and Lempert has explained Stalin 's purges and the Russian Revolution of in terms of demographic factors that drive political economy. These approaches suggest that political ideology follows demographic forces.
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Physics professor, Albert Allen Bartlett , has lectured over 1, times on "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy", promoting sustainable living and explaining the mathematics of overpopulation. Malthus is directly referenced by science-fiction author K.
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Eric Drexler in Engines of Creation : "In a sense, opening space will burst our limits to growth, since we know of no end to the universe. Nevertheless, Malthus was essentially right. The Malthusian growth model now bears Malthus's name. Verhulst developed the logistic growth model favored by so many critics of the Malthusian growth model in only after reading Malthus's essay.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Treatise by Thomas Malthus.
An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter II.
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Chapter VII, p 44 . Chapter 2, p 8 . Chapter IX, p 72 . Further information: Modern synthesis 20th century. The autobiography of Charles Darwin. My life: a record of events and opinions.
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Goodwin, M. Condorcet and Other Writers 1 ed. London: J. Johnson in St Paul's Church-yard. Retrieved 20 June Winter Retrieved 7 April Oxford World's Classics reprint. Unintended consequences play a major role in economic thought; see the invisible hand and the tragedy of the commons. Victorian Social Medicine: the ideas and methods of William Farr. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Meek, ed. Marx and Engels on Malthus. Society and Its Environment: An Introduction. Retrieved 12 February Malthus, , p. Evolution: the history of an idea. Berkeley: University of California Press. Population: The First Essay. University of Michigan Press. Paul's Churchyard, London: J. Johnson, , p. Oxford World's Classics reprint: xxix Chronology. Macmillan Reference USA. Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 31 July At this stage, Malthus had not yet reached the level of analysis that would later lead him to be called the founding father of modern demography.
The Social Contract. The Social Contract Press. Retrieved 10 January Shelley: "A philosophical view of reform. London: Gordian, Malthus past and present. New York: Academic Press. Introduction to Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population. Dent, London. Heinemann, London. Malthus's Essay on That Subject. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 14 June The Doomsday Syndrome: an assault on pessimism. The ultimate resource ; and The ultimate resource II. The Skeptical Environmentalist.